Hidasnémeti-Borház-dűlő Gravettien lelőhely kőpengéinek morfometriai elemzése (Morphometric analysis of blades from Hidasnémeti-Borház-dűlő Gravettian site)

Ferenc Eleki1, Attila Péntek2

1 Független kutató / Independent researcher
2 Független kutató / Independent researcher, 2143 Kistarcsa, Késmárki u. 27.

Cite as Eleki, F. & Péntek, A. (2016). Hidasnémeti-Borház-dűlő Gravettien lelőhely kőpengéinek morfometriai elemzése (Morphometric analysis of blades from Hidasnémeti-Borház-dűlő Gravettian site). Litikum – Journal of the Lithic Research Roundtable, 4, pp. 33–48. https://doi.org/10.23898/litikuma0017

Abstract. Morphometric analysis of blades from Hidasnémeti-Borház-dűlő Gravettian site. The excavation of Hidasnémeti-Borház dűlő Upper Palaeolithic site was conducted by Katalin Simán between 1983 and 1985. Based on the shouldered points in the excavated lithic assemblage, she placed the site to a well limited time horizon of the Gravettian technocomplex. Ferenc Eleki conducted a technological analyis on the assemblage in his unpublished MA thesis (Eleki 2010). With this technological approach, relationship of the two observed culture bearing layer became possible in novel ways. The presence of numerous „breakages” on blades and bladelets also offered an opportunity for a more detailed metrical analysis. This kind of analysis didn’t took place so far, and only the thoroughness of the excavation could make possible to perform such studies. The one and only aim of this paper is the extension of the mathematical-statistical investigations. We would like to deal with the possible function of the site or the archaeological evaluation of the lithic assemblage only tangential. However, we didn’t consider the completion of the mathematical-statistical investigations autotelic, we try to give an archaeological interpretation of the results, even if this is may be not more than a hypotetical notion.

Keywords: Gravettian, Upper Palaeolithic, mathematical statistics, technology, breakages, Hidasnémeti

Data availability statement: The authors confirm that the data supporting the findings of this study are available within the article.

Disclosure statement: No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author.

Funding statement: The author received no financial support for the research and/or the publication of this article.

Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International Public License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0). You are free to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and transform the material, under the following terms: You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may not use the material for commercial purposes. If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.

Creative Commons License

List of references

Bálint Cs. 2015. Püspökhatvan-Takács-hegy paleolit leletanyagának tipológiai és nyersanyag elemzése a magyarországi Gravettien kontextusában. Egyetemi szakdolgozat. Kézirat ELTE-BTK Budapest.

Belayeva, V. J. 1977. Opyt sozdania metodiki opisania ’nozhey kostenkovskogo tipa’. In: Problemy paleolita Vostochnoy i Tsentralnoy Europy. Leningrad, 1977.

Bosznay, Á. 2008. Vértes László matematikai statisztikai munkásságáról. Archeometriai Műhely 2008/2, 7-10.

Chakravarti, I. M, Laha, R. L. 1967. Handbook of Methods of Applied Statistics, Volume I. John Wiley and Sons, 392–394.

Csongrádi-Balogh É., T. Dobosi V. 1995. Palaeolithic settlement traces near Püspökhatvan. Folia Archaeologica 44: 37–59.

Deller, D. B., Ellis, C. J. 2001. Evidence for Late Paleoindian Ritual from the Caradoc Site (AfHj-104), Southwestern Ontario, Canada. American Antiquity 66 (2): 267–284. https://doi.org/10.2307/2694608

D’Agostino, R. B. 1970. Transformation to normality of the null distribution of g1. Biometrika 57 (3): 679–681. https://doi.org/10.2307/2334794

D’Agostino, R. B., Belanger, A., D’Agostino, Jr. R. B 1990. A suggestion for using powerful and informative tests of normality (PDF). The American Statistician 44 (4): 316–321. https://doi.org/10.2307/2684359

Eleki F. 2010. Hidasnémeti-Borház-dűlő paleolit leletanyagának tipológiai-technológiai elemzése a hazai Gravettienek kontextusában. Egyetemi szakdolgozat. Kézirat ELTE-BTK Budapest.

Haesaerts, P., Damblon, F., Bachner, M., Trnka, G. 1996. Revised stratigraphy and chronology of the Willendorf II sequence, Lower Austria. Archaeologia Austriaca 80: 25-42.

Holló Zs., Lengyel Gy., Mester Zs., Szolyák P. 2004. Egy pattintott kőeszköz vizsgálata. Magyar kifejezések a technológiai vizsgálatokhoz 3. Ősrégészeti Levelek 6: 62–80.

Inizan, M.-L., Reduron-Ballinger, M., Roche, H., Tixier, J. 1995. Technology de la Pierre taillée. CREP, Meudon

Inizan, M.-L., Reduron-Ballinger, M., Roche, H., Tixier, J. 1999. Technology and Termonology of Knapped Stone. CREP, Meudon

Kaminska, L., Kozłowski, J. K. 2011. Nitra I-Čermáň v rámci štruktúry osídlenia gravettienskej kultúry na Slovensku. Slovenská archeológia (Slovak Archaeology) 1(59): 1-85.

Klíma, B. 1976. Le pavlovien. In: Périgordien et gravettien en Europe. UISPP, IXe Congres. Éd. par.: Bohuslav Klíma, 128–141.

Kofidou, F. 2009. Lithics and Personhood in the Lateglacial of north west Europe. Thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. University of Southampton. Faculty of Law, Arts and Social Sciences.

Kozłowski, J. K. 1984. Les lames amenagées par la technique de Kostenki dans le Périgordien de Corbiac. Archaeologia Interregionalis (1984) 31–78.

Kozłowski, J. K. 1996: The Danubian Gravettian as seen from the northern perspective. In: Svoboda, J. (ed.), Paleolithic in the Middle Danube Region. Anniversary volume to Bohuslav Klíma. Arheologický ústav AV ČR, Brno, 11–22.

Kozłowski, J. K. 1998. Taxonomic position of the site in the frame of the Central European Late Gravettian. In: Kozłowski, J. (ed.), Complex of Upper Palaeolithic sites near Moravany, Western Slovakia. Vol. II. Moravany-Lopata II (excavations 1993-1996). Kraków.

Kozłowski, J. K. 2008. The shouldered point horizon and the impact of the LGM on human settlement distribution in Europe. Petrkovice. On Shouldered Points and Female Figurines. The Dolní Vestonice Studies 15: 181–192.

Kozłowski, J. K. 2013. Raw materials procurement in the Late Gravettian of the Carpathian Basin. In: Mester, Zs. (ed.), The Lithic Raw Material Sources and Interregional Human Contacts in the Northern Carpathian Regions. Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, Kraków-Budapest, 63–85.

Kozłowski, J. K., Sobczyk, K. 1987. The Upper Palaeolithic site Kraków-Spadzista Street C2 (Excavations 1980). Kraków, 1987.

Lengyel, Gy. 2009. Radiocarbon dates of the “Gravettian entity” in Hungary. Praehistoria 9: 241–263.

Lengyel, Gy. 2014. Distant connection changes from the Early Gravettian to the Epigravettian in Hungary, In: Otte, M., Le Brun-Ricalens, F. (dir.), Modes de contacts et de déplacements au Paléolithique eurasiatique. E.R.A.U.L. 140, Liège, 331–347.

Lengyel, Gy., Chu, W. 2016. Long thin blade production and Late Gravettian hunter-gatherer mobility in Eastern Central Europe. Quaternary International 406: 166–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2016.01.020

Lilliefors, H. 1967. On the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test for normality with mean and variance unknown. Journal of the American Statistical Association 62: 399–402. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1967.10482916

Mester, Zs. 2008-2009. Les outils foliacés de la grotte Jankovich : la renaissance d’un problème ancien. Praehistoria 9-10: 81–98.

Mester, Zs. 2010. Technological analysis of Szeletian bifacial points from Szeleta Cave (Hungary). Human Evolution 24(1–2): 107-124.

Mester, Zs. 2011. A magyarországi középső és felső paleolitikum bifaciális levéleszközeinek technológiája. In: T. Biró, K., Markó, A. (szerk.), Emlékkönyv Violának. Tanulmányok T. Dobosi Viola tiszteletére. Papers in honour of Viola T. Dobosi. Budapest, 2011, 15–41.

Musil, R. 2010. Palaeoenvironment at Gravettian sites in central Europe with emphasis on Moravia (Czech Republic). Quartär 57: 95–123.

Nagy, G. 2013. A miskolci Avas Alsó-Szentgyörgy kőeszközeinek statisztikai vizsgálata. Diplomamunka, Budapest: Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, kézirat.

NIST 2013. NIST/SEMATECH e-Handbook of Statistical Methods, http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/index.htm

Pelikán, P. 1986. The Mesozoic siliceous rocks of the Bükk Mountains. In: Papers for the 1st International Conference on Prehistoric Flint Mining and Lithic Raw Material Identification in the Carpathian Basin, Budapest–Sümeg, 177–180.

Pelikán, P. 2002. Földtani felépítés, rétegtani áttekintés. A Bükki Nemzeti Park. Hegyek, erdők, emberek, 23-49.

Přichystal, A. 2010. Classification of lithic raw materials used for prehistoric chipped artefacts in general and siliceous sediments (silicites) in particular: the Czech proposal – Javaslat a pattintott kőeszközök készítésére használt kőeszközök osztályozására, általános tekintetben, különös tekintettel a kovakőzetekre és a kovás üledékekre. Archeometriai Műhely 2013/3: 177–181. http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_3/AM-10-03-AP.pdf

Simán, K. 1986. Jelentés Hidasnémeti-Borházdűlő felsőpaleolitikus telep ásatásáról. A Herman Ottó Múzeum Közleményei 24: 2–4.

Simán, K. 1989. Hidasnémeti – Upper Paleolithic site in the Hernád valley (Northeast Hungary). Acta Archaeologica Carpathica 28: 5–24.

Svoboda, J. 1996. The pavlovian: typology and behaviour. In: Svoboda, J. (ed.), Paleolithic in the Middle Danube Region. Anniversary volume to Bohuslav Klíma. Archeologický ústav AV ČR, Brno, 283–301.

Svoboda, J. 2007. The gravettian on the middle Danube. Spécial table ronde (1ère partie): Le Gravettien entités régionales d’une paléoculture européenne, Les Eyzies, juillet 2004. PALEO. Revue d’archéologie préhistorique 19: 203–220.

  1. Biró, K. 1986. The raw material stock for chipped stone artefacts in the Northern Mid-Mountains Tertiary in Hungary. In: Biró, K. T. (ed.), Papers for the 1st International Conference on Prehistoric Flint Mining and Lithic Raw Material Identification in the Carpathian Basin, Budapest–Sümeg. Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum, Budapest, 183–195.
  2. Biró, K. 1988. Distribution of lithic raw materials on Prehistoric sites. An interim report. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 40: 251–274.
  3. Biró K. 2008a. Kőeszköz nyersanyagok Magyarország területén. Miskolci Egyetem Közleményei, A sorozat, Bányászat 74: 11–37.
  4. Biró K. 2008b. Vértes László és a nyersanyagkutatások. Archeometriai Műhely 2008/2: 17–22.
  5. Dobosi, V. 1978. A pattintott kőeszközök nyersanyagáról. Folia Archaeologica 29: 7–19.
  6. Dobosi, V. (ed.) 2000a. Bodrogkeresztúr-Henye (NE-Hungary), Upper Palaeolithic site. Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum, Budapest
  7. Dobosi, V. 2000b. Upper Palaeolithic research in Hungary – a situation report from 2000. Praehistoria 1: 149–159.
  8. Dobosi, V., Simán, K. 1996. New Upper Palaeolithic site at Megyaszó-Szelestető. Communicationes Archaeologicae Hungaricae 1996: 5–22.

Verpoorte, A. 2003. Absolute dates for the Bohemian Middle Upper Palaeolithic. Archeologické rozhledy 55(1): 3–9.

Verpoorte, A. 2009. Chronology of the Gravettian in Bohemia. In: Šída, P. (ed.), The Gravettian of Bohemia. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Inst. of Archaeology at Brno, Brno, 44–58.

Vértes, L. 1962. Ausgrabungen der Altsteinzeitlichen Siedlung von Arka 1960-61. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 14: 143–157.

Vértes, L. 1964. Das Jungpaläolithikum von Arka in Nord-Ungarn. Quartär 15/16: 79–132.

Vértes, L. 1965. The deposit of silex blades from Boldogkőváralja. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 17: 128–136.

Vértes, L. 1966. The Upper Palaeolithic Site on Mt. Henye at Bodrogkeresztúr. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 18: 3–14.

Vlačiky, M., Michalík, T., Fišáková, M. N., Nývlt, D., Moravcová, M., Králík, M., Kovanda, J., Péková, K., Přichystal, A., Dohnalová, A. 2013. Gravettian occupation of the Beckov Gate in Western Slovakia as viewed from the interdisciplinary research of the Trenčianske Bohuslavice-Pod Tureckom site. Quaternary International 294: 41–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2011.09.004

Weitzel, C., Colombo, M. 2006. ¿Qué hacemos con los fragmentos? Un experimento en fractura de artefactos líticos tallados. La Zaranda de Ideas 2: 19–33.

Wilczyński, J., Wojtal, P. 2011. Jaksice II–a new Gravettian site in southern Poland. Přehled výzkumů 52: 37–41.

Wilczyński, J., Wojtal, P., Sobczyk, K. 2012. Spatial organization of the Gravettian mammoth hunters’ site at Kraków Spadzista (southern Poland). Journal of Archaeological Science 39: 3627–3642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2012.05.012

Wilczyński, J., Wojtal, P., Sobieraj, D., Sobczyk, K. 2015. Kraków Spadzista trench C2: New research and interpretations of Gravettian settlement. Quaternary International 359: 96–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2014.08.025

Williams-Thorpe, O., Warren, S. E., Nandris, J. G. 1984. The distribution and provenance of archaeological obsidian in Central and Eastern Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science 11: 183–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-4403(84)90001-3

Williams-Thorpe, O., Warren, S. E., Nandris, J. G. 1986. Characterization of obsidian sources and artefacts from Central and Eastern Europe, using instrumental neutron activating analysis. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Prehistoric Flint Mining and Lithic Raw Material Identification in the Carpathian Basin, Budapest–Sümeg Vol. 2, pp. 271–279.